Learning The Basics Of Tig Welding

To master tig welding, you will need to practice. To learn the basics, it’s best to enroll in a vocational school.

This type of welding uses a tungsten electrode to weld the metal. This arc is shielded from pollutants by an inert, such as argon.

Arc Welding

The arc-welding process involves creating an electrical arc between the nonfusible electrode and the material to be welded. This arc creates thermal energy that forms a molten pool. Energy parameters determine the width of this bath, and variations cause arc instability. By controlling pulsation, the effects of parameters are reduced.

Tig Welding

When TIG welding, a nonfusible, generally tungsten, electrode is enveloped in an inert gas such as argon, helium or hydrogen to protect it from oxidation. These gases also protect the arc from contamination caused by atmospheric contaminants.

Tungsten electrodes are available in different percentages of thorium and tungsten. Each type is identified by its color (red for thorium or W-Tho2, and green for pure, pure tungsten). The arc is created when the electrode melts metal on the surface in the weld area and flows with molten base to create a bead. The arc must be moved to form the weld beads and to ensure that they are in the correct position.

Once the arc is established, you can start feeding filler rod into the weld puddle. It takes practice to know how to feed wire without damaging the surrounding materials or the weld pool. To get a feel of the arc, it is best to weld on scraps of steel with no filler rod.

Shielding Gas

A shielding gas creates the arc, and protects molten pools from contamination. Shielding gases can affect a number of characteristics, including weld penetration and weld beads.

The type of welding material, thickness range, joint design, toughness requirements and welding position will influence the type of shielding gas needed. Fully inert gases like argon and helium are good for most applications. You may want a blend of oxidizing gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen for nickel-based metals to prevent nitrides, which can lead to brittleness.

Also, the appearance of your weld bead as well as the cleanup should be considered. For example, excessive spatter can leave marks on the metal you’re welding, your workspace or you – and requires extra effort to clean up. Some gas mixtures offer the ability to control spatter and other fume generation.


The tungsten electrode acts as the torch and generates the heat to melt the metal and create the weld pool. It is not consumable, like the stick electrode used in MIG welding and the wire used in Tungsten Arc Welding. TIG utilizes an inert gas, typically argon, that shields the arc from oxygen contamination that could damage the electrode and weld surface.

Unlike other types of welding processes, TIG uses direct polarity (the pole (-) of the generator connected to the electrode) for steels and their alloys, copper, nickel, titanium, and aluminum and their alloys, which makes it suitable for a wide range of applications, including joining thinner metals without the use of filler material. It also allows a greater feed rate, less withdrawal, and minimizes distortion because of its stable and narrow melting bath.

TIG electrodes contain a higher percentage of tungsten than pure tungsten. They also often contain metal oxidations to increase their electronic emissivity. They come in two finishes: a clean or a grounded finish. The latter finish indicates that the electrodes have been chemically cleansed to remove contaminants.

A TIG setup includes a shielding-gas container, an electrode holder and an arc controller. It also includes a foot pedal and a power supply. Wear your personal protective gear, which includes leather gloves, long sleeves and coveralls and a welding mask. Unscrew the electrode holder’s back and insert the rod. It is recommended to use a pointed tip for TIG welding. A rounded point tends to dance and can contaminate an arc.


TIG welding uses a torch to create a flame or electric arc that melts the base metal and filler material. This arc provides the heat necessary to fuse the materials together, creating strong and durable welds. The torch protects the weld pool from oxidation, impurities and other contaminants during the welding process. This is crucial for high-quality welds. Shielding gases like argon are commonly used for this, but other options may be available depending on the material or project.

The welder controls the flow of shielding gas and the amount of energy to the torch by operating a pedal connected to the weld station. Several settings can be adjusted in order to optimize the performance of the welding, including arc speed and length, torch angle, and voltage. TIG can be used to weld a wide range of materials, but it’s most commonly used with aluminum and its alloys.

TIG is an environmentally-friendly option, as it produces less fumes and smoke than MIG. It also reduces nitrogen oxides and ozone, making it better for the environment and for operators. TIG welding also produces fewer sparks compared to other processes. This can reduce the need for cleaning.